CD11C (Hairy Cell / Nhl Marker)

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    blood sample




    Age group

    Above 10 years

    The CD11C gene, alternatively known as Alpha X, is responsible for encoding the CD11C integrin chain protein. It’s essential to note the difference between the two biological components. The Alpha X gene is the parent source, while CD11C is the resulting protein.

    Abnormal expressions of CD11C are present in cancer subtypes such as Hairy Cell Leukaemia (HCL) and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). Consequently, medical professionals have begun to view unusual concentrations of the protein as a cancer marker.

    Hairy Cell Leukaemia is a rare and gradual form of blood cancer where the bone marrow produces abnormal B-cells in excessive quantities. These abnormal cells limit the production of healthy platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells.

    HCL is chronic and has no cure, with viable treatment leading to temporary remission in some cases. Some common symptoms of the condition are as follows:

    • Abdominal bloating 
    • Fatigue or general weakness
    • Unusual weight loss
    • Recurrent infections
    • Frequent bruises

    Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is a cancer subtype that affects the lymphatic system. The disease involves the abnormal growth of lymphocytes (white blood cells) that lead to the formation of tumours. Examples of a few manifested symptoms are listed below:

    • Swelling around the armpits, groin or neck
    • Abdominal and chest pain 
    • Persistent fatigue and breathing difficulties 
    • Fever and night sweats
    • Weight loss

    Medical advancements have made NHL treatment very accessible. In most cases, affected individuals are cured of the disease entirely.

    A CD11C (HCL/NHL Marker) test is part of a more extensive immunophenotyping assessment that examines the protein’s expression. It’s critical to note that this is not a leukaemia screening test.

    The test's original purpose was to identify unclassified haematological malignancies (blood cancer), which in this case are HCL and NHL. However, for undiagnosed individuals, abnormal CD11C expression can indicate either the probability of developing such diseases or the direct existence of the same.

    The CD11C (HCL/NHL Marker) test follows the standard procedures of an immunophenotyping process. Testers charge a screening panel with a cancer marker and then evaluate the results incrementally. In some circumstances, pathologists may use reflex testing to comprehensively characterize the disease’s state or examine abnormalities from the initial screening panel.

    The final interpretation combines the panel and reflex testing results with the patient’s medical history. Clinically observed abnormal expressions of CD11C lead to the following:

    • For patients already diagnosed with leukaemia or Lymphoma, the disease is either classified as HCL or NHL
    • For undiagnosed individuals, abnormal protein expression indicates either undiagnosed cancer or the increased probability of developing the same

    The patient's clinical history is mandatory to perform this examination. Without it, doctors cannot verify test results.

    Apollo 24|7 provides a CD11C (HCL/NHL Marker) test that helps in the general assessment of the protein’s concentration. Besides disease classification, the results of such a test can help in the following:

    • Predicting the condition's aggressiveness
    • Determining treatment efficacy
    • Test results can also supplement medical research on the protein. 

    faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Frequently asked questions

    The presence of specific genes, mutations and proteins in the body indicate the probability of developing particular diseases. These biological components are called markers. A cancer marker indicates either the presence of the disease or the probability of developing the same. Since abnormal CD11C expression is usually present in HCL and NHL, medical experts have classified the protein as a cancer marker.
    There are no significant risks when taking the CD11C (HCL/NHL Marker) test. Some individuals may experience a slight itching sensation at the test site after sample collection. If any symptoms persist for more than a week, it’s necessary to consult a doctor.
    HCL is a rare form of blood cancer and affects males more than females. On average, 600-800 cases are diagnosed annually, with most patients being male and over 50 years old. NHL is a common type of cancer and affects males and females equally. Of the two diseases, NHL is easier to treat and cure. HCL is a chronic condition and can only go into remission with the help of treatment.
    A few medical research papers found that a high CD11C expression reduced the risk of relapse or death in patients with gastric cancer. Consequently, increased protein concentrations may indicate a favourable prognosis in specific cancer subtypes. However, research findings cannot substantially prove the protein’s clinical implications unless supplemented with additional conclusive studies.
    Blood sample collection follows standard laboratory procedures and involves using a sterilized needle to gather the patient's specimen. In rare instances, some laboratories will also require a bone marrow sample. Subsequently, an incision is made in the skin, and a hollow needle collects the bone marrow sample. There may be a brief stinging sensation during the process.
    Medical experts have not been able to determine the exact causal factor behind HCL or NHL. A DNA mutation usually triggers both diseases. However, the reason for the mutation has not yet been established. Since biological factors directly trigger both conditions, associated genetic history might be a predisposing factor.

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    The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results