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By Apollo 24|7, Published on- 08 December 2022 & Updated on -

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  • Symptoms: Pale skin, fatigue, shortness of breath, cold hands, chest pain, light-headedness, fast heart rate, brittle nails, headache, dizziness, irregular or inconsistent heartbeats, yellowish skin, weakness, pallor, feeling cold, irritability, restless legs, lethargy, pale gums, enlarged lymph nodes, unusual craving, jaundice, tongue inflammation, enlarged liver
  • Causes: Imbalance in red blood cell (RBC) production, decreased RBC generation, lead exposure, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, destruction of RBCs, excess bleeding
  • Risk Factors: Genetic history, heavy alcohol consumption, over 65 years of age, chronic disease like cancer, regular exposure to toxic substances
  • Severity: Mild to severe
  • Which doctor to consult: Haematologist


Anaemia is a health problem that is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children. However, anyone with a red blood cell production malfunction can have this disorder. In simple terms, a person with anaemia does not have adequate oxygen-rich blood.

Red blood cells (RBCs) are essential components that carry oxygen from the lungs and transfer it to other body parts. In addition, these cells take carbon dioxide back to the lungs to exhale it out of the system. Individuals suffering from anaemia lack normal production of healthy RBCs. As a result, specific symptoms come into the picture.

People with anaemia experience fatigue, tiredness, and shortness of breath. This health condition can sometimes arise due to the destruction of red blood cells. With several risk factors, anaemia can result from various causes. Hence, determining the root cause becomes vital for proper treatment.

Generally, anaemia can be temporary or last for a long duration. Also, the severity depends on the origin of the disease and the state of the immune system. In most cases, anaemia can result due to multiple causes. So, the treatment for this condition differs from person to person.

When To Consult a doctor?

Generally, evaluating the symptoms becomes vital to decide on the requirement for an expert diagnosis. Here are the conditions that indicate a visit to the doctor without any delay:

  • On Symptoms

Signs like extreme fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, and dizziness are common indicators of anaemia. In addition, one must identify heart palpitations and chest pain. These symptoms clearly denote the need to visit a doctor.

  • Physical Signs

Brittle nails, extreme hair loss, yellowish or pale skin, and irregular heartbeats can indicate a lack of iron or red blood cells. Also, cancer or kidney disease patients are more prone to develop anaemia. In such cases, visiting the physician without any delay is extremely vital.

Suffering from fatigue due to known reasons should not be alarming. However, a low haemoglobin count can indicate the onset or presence of this illness. So, it is crucial to undergo a proper diagnosis and consult a doctor after noticing more than one symptom or physical alteration.


The common way to diagnose anaemia is by evaluating a patient’s family and medical history. After this initial step, a physician can recommend the following tests:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)

In this diagnosis, the blood cell count in the patient’s body is analysed. For people with anaemia, the RBC count is the most vital aspect. A CBC panel will also evaluate other parameters like platelets.

  • Iron Levels

Anaemia has a relation with the iron values in the bloodstream. An anaemic person has low iron levels in blood. So, a serum test determining the level of iron in blood becomes essential to detect potential deficiency.

  • Peripheral Blood Smear

This diagnosis aims to analyse the RBCs’ shape under a microscope. The lab technician observes red blood cells' shape, size, and colour for any abnormality.

In some cases, doctors can require an in-depth analysis of the bone marrow sample. For this purpose, it can be necessary to undergo an additional medical assessment.

Understanding that the RBC levels differ based on gender and age is crucial. The normal RBC range for male adults lies between 4.35 to 5.65 million/mL of blood. On the other hand, the normal range for female adults is 3.90 to 5.10 million/mL of blood.


Anaemia can be caused by:

  • Poor diet
  • Associated health problems

So, the treatment for this medical condition will vary according to the root cause. Generally, treating anaemia due to a lack of nutrients is simple. This treatment requires the proper intake of iron and foods rich in vitamin B12.
However, the anaemia treatment plan for other diseases requires personalised diagnosis and aftercare. Here are some of the common methods to treat this health disorder:

  • Home Care

Intake of nutritional diet and iron supplements is the most well-known home treatment plan. If the body has difficulty in absorbing vitamin B12 and folate, a physician can recommend injections and a proper domestic diet plan.

  • Medication

Vitamin B supplements, ferrous sulphate, folic acid, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are popular drug options to increase the production of red blood cells. The frequency, intensity, and type of medication varies from person to person.

  • Surgical Treatment

As anaemia is a blood-related disease, the necessity of physical surgery is rare. However, blood transfusion, bone marrow transplantation, and spleen removal can become necessary for severe forms of anaemia. For instance, severe types of thalassemia can require bone marrow stem cell transplant. Hence, the need for surgical treatment arises primarily for severe cases.

  • Alternative Management

For most patients, proper nutrition, supplements, and treatment of underlying diseases are forms of alternative management. A good example is sickle cell anaemia. To treat this condition, doctors can use hydroxyurea, a cancer drug. In addition, some patients might need pain relievers and intravenous (IV) fluids.

Boosting red blood cell production is the most prominent treatment for anaemia. Since almost 50% of all anaemic cases result from iron deficiency, home care and medication are popular treatment options.

Risks And Complications If Left Untreated

  • Problems with the heart

Red blood cells carry oxygen in the bloodstream. In anaemic patients, the lack of these cells eventually lowers the oxygen levels. Resultantly, the heart needs to work hard to compensate for the decrease of cells rich in haemoglobin. This increase in the load can strain the heart, thereby leading to conditions like cardiac hypertrophy, murmurs, and heart failure.

  • Pregnancy issues

There is a direct correlation between menstrual periods and anaemia. Also, during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, women can experience this condition. Left untreated, severe anaemia can cause problems like the birth of an underweight baby. In some cases, this condition can lead to preterm birth. Women with anaemia can also experience high blood loss during labour. The baby can also carry this disorder during infancy.

  • Deterioration of the immune system

The role of iron in maintaining a healthy body is crucial. During anaemia, the levels of this element drop-down, causing a compromised immune system. As a result, patients can become more prone to infections.

  • Complications in normal body development

Infants with anaemia face severe challenges in the proper development of their physical facets. Low iron levels in blood can delay motor and cognitive developments. In addition, anaemia can affect brain development in young children.

  • Death

Some forms of this medical condition can be highly fatal. For instance, sickle cell anaemia can be life-threatening. 
Due to several complexities and the fatal nature of the risks, it becomes vital to prevent or treat this health disorder without delay.

Additional Information

People with a high risk of developing anaemia should have extra knowledge about this disease. This section explains the common types of this health condition.

Types Of Anaemia

Based on the cause of anaemia, it is categorised into four types.

1. Vitamin Deficiency Anaemia
As the name suggests, this condition arises due to abnormal amounts of certain organic compounds. The decrease in RBCs is a result of lower counts of the following molecules:

  • Folate
  • Vitamin B12

Fatigue, dizziness, muscle weakness, and weight loss are common symptoms of this condition. Poor diet, intestinal issues, and gastric surgeries can cause this disease.

To prevent vitamin deficiency anaemia, one can consume a healthy diet comprising some or all of the following foods:

  • Eggs
  • Milk
  • Breakfast cereals
  • Chicken
  • Fish
  • Broccoli
  • Strawberries

So, preventing this condition can be comparatively easy.

2. Sickle Cell Anaemia

This is an inherited condition that impacts the shape of RBCs. In this form of anaemia, the RBCs transform into a crescent moon shape.

The common symptoms of this condition are pain crises, inflammation of the limbs, vision problems, and immature physical growth.

Generally, this fatal disease can develop at a tender age of six months. It is thus vital to identify the signs and consult the doctor without delay. Early treatment can prevent further complications due to sickle cell anaemia.

3. Aplastic Anaemia

This form results from a halt in the production of new blood cells. Aplastic anaemia can lead to the following complications:

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Uncontrolled bleeding
  • Weakened immune system

Some common symptoms of this form are skin rashes, pale colour of the skin, irregular heart rate, shortness of breath, and headache. Exposure to toxic chemicals, blood diseases, chemotherapy, and autoimmune disorders are some of the risk factors for this medical disorder.

Generally, medication, stem cell transplants, and blood transfusions are the only treatment options for this type of anaemia.

4. Thalassemia

The presence of low haemoglobin in the blood is a distinguishing factor in this form of anaemia. Common signs of thalassemia include abdominal swelling, fatigue, slow physical development, and dark urine.

In most cases, thalassemia is an inherited disorder. It is a result of DNA mutation. In severe forms, this condition can cause the following complications:

  • Enlarged spleen
  • Deformities in bones
  • Abnormal heart rhythms

Mild cases of thalassemia do not require complex treatment. In such cases, consuming a well-balanced diet can prove effective. However, severe cases can need blood transfusions.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Yes, anaemia can cause weight gain. The main reason behind this is the underactive thyroid gland due to low iron levels in the bloodstream. People with anaemia experience fatigue, leading to a lack of mobility and movement. This indirect impact can also lead to a sedentary lifestyle and an increase in weight.

The lack of iron or vitamin B12 can cause specific psychological issues in a person. This medical condition can lead to anxiety, depression, and sleep disorder. Proper management and diagnosis of this health disorder thus become highly crucial. Consequently, patients can prevent further physical and emotional complications.

Conditions like viral hepatitis, erythema, Crohn's disease, and stroke are some of the disorders with similar signs to anaemia. So, consulting a doctor and undergoing relevant medical tests are the best options to detect the illness. Always choose a reliable pathology lab to increase the accuracy of test results.

If one has vitamin deficiency anaemia, eating foods like red meat, beans, and peas can prove beneficial. In addition, items like dry fruits, dark green leafy vegetables, and seafood can supply the necessary vitamins and minerals.

In most cases, people with anaemia due to iron deficiency can recover within three months. However, the doctor can suggest a prolonged intake of supplements and medications to keep the complications at bay. Conditions like sickle cell anaemia are challenging to treat. So, the recovery period of this disease depends on the type and severity.