CD123 (Monocytic Macrophage Marker)

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    blood sample




    Age group

    Above 10 years

    Monocytic and Macrophage markers reveal the pleiotropic activities of the cells. Macrophages help to maintain tissue integrity by repairing damaged cells and matrices. These cells serve various purposes most notably, supporting the immune defence system of the body.

    Many chronic inflammations led to the development of cardiometabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and vascular complications. Monocytes recognize these abnormal reactions to endogenous factors. With the help of CD123, the inflammatory programming of monocytes can be realized.

    It helps to analyze surface biomarkers on circulating monocytes and is a promising tool for recognizing chronic inflammations in the human body. They can be further differentiated into two categories which are as follows: 

    • Dendritic cells- These signal the other cells in the immune system to fight germs
    • Macrophages- These are the frontline defence against any germs and diseases

    A monocyte imbalance can lead to many health issues like Monocytosis and Monocytopenia. They occur when the number of monocyte cells is too high or too low.

    Monocytosis or high monocyte count can occur due to the following disorders:

    • Autoimmune diseases
    • Inflammatory disorders
    • Cardiovascular diseases
    • Cancer (leukaemia, lymphoma)
    • Blood disorders
    • Infections

    Monocytopenia or low monocyte count can occur due to the following reasons:

    • Burn injuries
    • HIV
    • Reaction to chemotherapy
    • Blood Infection
    • Aplastic anaemia

    There are some lifestyle practices that will help combat monocytopenia and monocytosis. To lower monocyte count, the following can be done:

    • Consult your physician for the dosage and timing of medications to lower monocyte count
    • Take care of the medical condition triggering the problem
    • Intake more vitamin B12, C, and D
    • Get treatment for any current infections

    To increase monocyte count, you can do the following:

    • Avoid red meat, carbohydrates, and fried food.
    • Increase physical activities like exercising.
    • Minimize alcohol consumption.
    • Get appropriate treatment for any current infection causing a high monocyte count.

    The test CD123 is useful for detecting markers of plasmacytoid monocytes, megakaryocytes, and mast cells. Monocytic/Macrophage markers are found in plasmacytoid monocytes, and the mast cells are in interfollicular regions. In the bone marrow, it is expressed through mast cells, megakaryocytes, and hematopoietic precursors. CD123 gets expressed characteristically in blastic plasmacytoid neoplasm, which helps in distinguishing it from acute monocytic leukaemia.

    To do the test, elastic staining and immunochemistry staining are performed on the patient. The presence of CD123 positive cells, the clustering and distribution, pattern of elastic fibre loss are all evaluated from the stain. To do the evaluation Chi-square test is used for the Monocytic Macrophage marker.

    The patient does not require any additional preparation for the test. However, they must inform their doctors of any prior health conditions and medications before undergoing the CD123 test. The specimen required is a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue block or unbaked, unstained slide for H&E staining and 2-3 positively charged unstained slides for the Monocytic Macrophage marker test.

    The test is only an interpretation of the stain and does not include a pathologist interpretation. The positive and negative controls are verified and documented by Apollo 24|7. Of course, the final interpretation of the test depends largely on the patient’s clinical history and other diagnostics done by qualified pathologists.

    The test results of CD123, along with the elastic staining and histological features, are useful for diagnosing challenging conditions like lymphocytic scarring alopecia and several types of cancer. Thus, it is a crucial test to detect many blood diseases and infections at an early stage.

    faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Frequently asked questions

    Monocytes are differentiated from MDP or macrophage-DC precursor, which mainly resides in the bone marrow. It can be differentiated either into dendritic cells or macrophages. The Monocytic Macrophage marker test helps to detect chronic inflammations, which can eventually lead to cardiovascular diseases.
    High monocyte count is also called monocytosis and is often associated with sub-acute infections. It can also get associated with certain types of cancer like leukaemia. Especially when you are recovering from a certain acute blood infection, a high monocyte count can occur.
    Having a too high monocyte count is one of the most common signs of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia or CMML. It can also cause many other symptoms of CMML. These monocytes can eventually settle in the spleen or liver, that in turn, can enlarge these organs.
    The Monocytic Macrophage Marker test is recommended to detect the presence of hairy cell leukaemia, plasmacytoid monocytes, and megakaryocytes. The clinical history of the patient is mandatory for conducting the test.
    Temporarily, a bacterial or viral infection can increase the monocyte count in your body. Bacterial diseases like tuberculosis are known to increase the monocyte count in your body. However, it is a temporary condition, and once your viral infection gets cured, the monocyte count also returns to normal.
    There are many medical conditions that lead to a high monocyte count. Autoimmune diseases like lupus and blood disorders can lead to the problem. Some specific medications can also trigger monocytosis which gets detected through Monocytic Macrophage Marker.

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    The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results