What are the different stages in the development of a vaccine?
There are five main phases in the development, evaluation, and approval of a vaccine
- Pre-clinical phase (vaccine is tested on animals)
- Phase 1 (tested on 10-50 people)
- Phase 2 (tested on 100s of people)
- Phase 3 (tested on 1000s of people)
- Approval and Launch
What is the status of the COVID-19 vaccines being developed globally?
- 156 vaccine candidates are in pre-clinical evaluation
- 42 are in the clinical evaluation stage (Ph 1, 2, 3)
- 10 of these are in the final phase (Ph 3)
- 3 vaccines are in various clinical trials in India (Ph 1, 2, 3)
- 1 vaccine in India is in the last phase (Ph 3) of clinical trial
Which countries are closest to approving COVID-19 vaccines?
Several countries have vaccines in the final phase of clinical trials
- UK: 1 vaccine
- US: 4 vaccines
- China: 4 vaccines
- Russia: 1 vaccine
- India: 1 vaccine
Which are the top vaccine candidates leading the race globally and in the final phase of clinical trials?
- University of Oxford/AstraZeneca (UK)
- Moderna/NIAID (US)
- BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer (US/Germany)
- Sinovac and Sinopharm (China)
- Gamaleya (Russia)
Which vaccines are the frontrunners in India?
- The Serum Institute of India is conducting the final phase (Ph 3) of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine trial in India
- Bharath Biotech & Zydus Cadila are manufacturing indigenous vaccines in India, and both are in phase 2 of trials
How close are we to an approved COVID-19 vaccine?
- The US FDA (Food & Drug Administration) is expected to start reviewing data from the trials by Nov/Dec 2020
- Some of the frontrunners are expected to request for EUA (emergency use authorization) by the end of the year
- The FDA has said that it will approve a vaccine if it develops immune response in at least 50% of the participants
- After the Government and health regulators approve, the vaccines will start becoming available
Who is likely to receive the first vaccines in India?
- These aspects are being worked out by the Government currently
- It is likely that frontline health workers will be among the first to receive
- High-risk people (e.g., seniors and individuals with comorbid conditions) may also be given priority
When will a COVID-19 vaccine be available in India and how can you get it?
- The Government has said that the first vaccines could start becoming available by early 2021
- The Government expects 400-500 million vaccine doses to be available in 2021
- Register yourself with the vaccine tracker for the latest updates on COVID-19 vaccines.