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COVID-19 Vaccines

COVID-19 Vaccines: How close are we?

By Apollo 24/7, Published on - 16 October 2020

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What are the different stages in the development of a vaccine?
There are five main phases in the development, evaluation, and approval of a vaccine
  • Pre-clinical phase (vaccine is tested on animals)
  • Phase 1 (tested on 10-50 people)
  • Phase 2 (tested on 100s of people)
  • Phase 3 (tested on 1000s of people)
  • Approval and Launch
What is the status of the COVID-19 vaccines being developed globally?
  • 156 vaccine candidates are in pre-clinical evaluation
  • 42 are in the clinical evaluation stage (Ph 1, 2, 3)
  • 10 of these are in the final phase (Ph 3)
  • 3 vaccines are in various clinical trials in India (Ph 1, 2, 3)
  • 1 vaccine in India is in the last phase (Ph 3) of clinical trial
Which countries are closest to approving COVID-19 vaccines?
Several countries have vaccines in the final phase of clinical trials
  • UK: 1 vaccine
  • US: 4 vaccines
  • China: 4 vaccines
  • Russia: 1 vaccine
  • India: 1 vaccine
Which are the top vaccine candidates leading the race globally and in the final phase of clinical trials?
  • University of Oxford/AstraZeneca (UK)
  • Moderna/NIAID (US)
  • BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer (US/Germany)
  • Sinovac and Sinopharm (China)
  • Gamaleya (Russia)
Which vaccines are the frontrunners in India?
  • The Serum Institute of India is conducting the final phase (Ph 3) of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine trial in India
  • Bharath Biotech & Zydus Cadila are manufacturing indigenous vaccines in India, and both are in phase 2 of trials
How close are we to an approved COVID-19 vaccine?
  • The US FDA (Food & Drug Administration) is expected to start reviewing data from the trials by Nov/Dec 2020
  • Some of the frontrunners are expected to request for EUA (emergency use authorization) by the end of the year
  • The FDA has said that it will approve a vaccine if it develops immune response in at least 50% of the participants
  • After the Government and health regulators approve, the vaccines will start becoming available
Who is likely to receive the first vaccines in India?
  • These aspects are being worked out by the Government currently
  • It is likely that frontline health workers will be among the first to receive
  • High-risk people (e.g., seniors and individuals with comorbid conditions) may also be given priority
When will a COVID-19 vaccine be available in India and how can you get it?
  • The Government has said that the first vaccines could start becoming available by early 2021
  • The Government expects 400-500 million vaccine doses to be available in 2021
  • Register yourself with the vaccine tracker for the latest updates on COVID-19 vaccines. 


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