Diabetes Complications: Hypoglycemia, Ketoacidosis, and More
Diabetes when uncontrolled can cause sudden increase in blood sugar level causing an emergency called Diabetic ketoacidosis which can be life threatening if not treated in time. Also, long standing Diabetes may lead to increased risk of Heart attack/ Angina/ Stroke, Nerve damage, Kidney damage, Gastroparesis (Nausea/ vomiting) Diarrhea or constipation, Eye damage - blindness, Increased risk of cataract and glaucoma, Foot damage/ amputations, Skin infections, Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease/ Depression/ Hearing impairment.
Diabetes is either due to no insulin production or ineffective insulin. In patients with no insulin production, we are left with no choice other than giving external insulin to control sugars. In nascent cases of other diabetes we try to control the blood sugar by diet/exercise and medicines. Additionally, when external insulin is given, body's own production goes down and it is suppressed.
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With time, raised blood sugar can damage blood vessels in the kidneys as well as nephrons making them not work as well as they should. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can damage kidneys too.
Diagnosed when fasting blood sugar of 126 mg/dl or more, post prandial blood sugar of 200 or more with glycated hemoglobin of 6.5% or more.Treatment is either tablets or insulin to control blood sugar levels along with life style modifications (Diet + exercise).