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Beta-2 Microglobulin, Urine

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  • Beta-2 Microglobulin, Urine

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About

blood sample
Sample

URINE

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Gender

Both

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Age group

7 years & above

Beta-2 microglobulin is a protein found on the surface of nucleated cells. It functions as a potential regulator of the immune system. The cells routinely release this protein into the blood. Hence, it is the most abundant in blood, whereas urine consists of trace levels of beta-2 microglobulin.

Usually, the body excretes this protein after being filtered by the kidneys. The blood filtering units in the kidney, called glomeruli, filter them as they pass through. The renal proximity tubes then reabsorb all the water, minerals, proteins, and vitamins from this compound. Afterwards, it is excreted through the urine.

However, there might be cases when the level of beta-2 microglobulin increases in the body. It is prevalent in patients with some cancers and inflammatory conditions. This increase occurs due to the damaged renal tubes. Hence, the renal tubes cannot reabsorb this protein.

Furthermore, if the glomeruli in the kidney are damaged, it could also lead to an increase in the beta-2 microglobulin levels.

A beta-2 microglobulin urine test determines the protein levels in the urine and checks if these levels are more than the usual range. Some of the other purposes of this test include:

  • To diagnose kidney disease, along with additional tests.
  • Distinguish between diseases or disorders affecting the glomeruli and the renal tubes.
  • Determine if an excess level of the protein is accumulated in a joint.
  • To monitor individuals who have undergone a recent kidney transplant.
  • To monitor organ rejection.

The testing requires a 24-hour urine sample from the patient. For this, they get a special container where they must store all urine for 24 hours. This sample has to be refrigerated and supplied to the lab as soon as the time is up.

The results come out as normal or abnormal levels of beta-2 microglobulin levels in the blood. Abnormal levels may indicate the presence of kidney disease or disorders specific to the glomeruli or renal tubes. In patients with a recent kidney transplant, abnormal protein levels may point to organ rejection.

Apollo 24|7 offers a comprehensive beta-2 microglobulin urine test that helps detect abnormal beta-2 microglobulin levels. Some of the symptoms that are synonymous with an excess of this protein in the body are:

  • Constant fatigue or weakness
  • Foamy, pink, bloody or brownish urine
  • Swelling or puffiness, especially around the eyes
  • Nausea

If these symptoms are consistent, it is vital to consult a health practitioner, who might recommend a beta-2 microglobulin urine test.
 

faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The beta-2 microglobulin urine test and blood tests serve different purposes. For instance, a doctor can understand potential kidney issues through urine tests. On the other hand, a blood test may help detect tumours in the body.
Yes, the beta-2 microglobulin urine test is safe since you need to collect and store the urine in a special container that the lab provides. You must refrigerate this specimen before submitting it to the lab.
Most labs have the beta-2 microglobulin urine test results available within 48 hours after you submit the sample. Although this duration varies according to the lab, it is usually a rapid test with fast delivery of reports.
Apart from acting as a potential marker for kidney disease, abnormal beta-2 microglobulin levels can also indicate ailments like severe infections and viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV). They can also point to multiple inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders.
Beta-2 microglobulin is believed to be a modulator of the lymphocyte surfaces and may also regulate immune activity. An increased protein level may point out to a kidney-related issue, discernible through a urine test.
The beta-2 microglobulin urine test is a urine test that can detect abnormal levels of the Beta-2 microglobulin protein in the body. Although abnormal readings may hint toward potential kidney issues, the doctor often suggests additional tests to confirm the diagnosis.

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The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results