CD59 (Pnh Marker)

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    blood sample




    Age group

    Above 10 years

    The CD59 test uses your blood sample to diagnose the presence of an ultra-rare acquired disease known as Paroxysmal nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH). This ailment is found in around 1 to 5 people per million and results in the premature death of healthy blood cells.

    Furthermore, it affects not just one blood cell type but all the types mentioned in the below list:

    • Red Blood Cells (RBCs/Erythrocytes - carry oxygen throughout the body)
    • White Blood Cells (WBCs/Leukocytes - protect your body from diseases and infections)
    • Platelets (Thrombocytes - play a vital role in blood clotting)

    The deadly disease is characterised by blood in your urine. To offer a better understanding of the disease, let's break down its name. The word 'Paroxysmal' means sudden, whereas 'nocturnal' means night. Lastly, 'Hemoglobinuria' refers to blood in urine, or more so, Haemoglobin in urine.

    Therefore, the term Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria refers to an acquired disease which entails blood urine at night. Some of the other notable symptoms of the disease are as follows:

    • Shortness of breath 
    • Pale or yellowish skin
    • Erectile dysfunction
    • Irregular heartbeat
    • Constant weakness and fatigue 
    • Recurring headaches 
    • Easy bruising 
    • Back pain 
    • Trouble swallowing

    All these symptoms are mainly caused by three important factors. They are as follows:

    • Broken RBCs
    • Excessive blood clots in veins 
    • Very low RBC count

    As mentioned above, the disease is quite uncommon and hence is usually seen in people with Aplastic Anaemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome. But what causes these complications? What causes the onset of this deadly acquired disease?

    To elaborate, Paroxysmal nocturnal Hemoglobinuria results from a protein that causes your white blood cells to turn on your red blood cells. These proteins are called the complement system, and this process is known as Membrane Attack Complex (MAC).

    Usually, RBCs have the PIGA gene in place to protect them against these WBC attacks. But in this case, the PIGA gene stops making these protective shields, and your RBCs will fall apart. As a result, they will release Haemoglobin into the bloodstream. This blood cell is responsible for carrying O2 around the body.

    This Haemoglobin that has been dumped into your bloodstream is called free Haemoglobin and is eliminated by your body's natural cleaning crew called Haptoglobin. This changes when you have been diagnosed with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria. Haptoglobin can't keep up with the amount of free Haemoglobin in the blood, resulting in the overflow of nitric oxide.

    As a result, all the nitric oxide in your body drains out, and without it, you will start experiencing painful spasms around your esophagus, stomach, back muscles, etc. This free Haemoglobin is also seen in your urine, as your urine will start turning darker and darker till it eventually turns blood red.

    Simultaneously, your bone marrow is under immense pressure to cover up for RBC loss. Hence, you are also exposed to a risk of Anaemia.

    If you start seeing any of the symptoms mentioned above, get Apollo 24/7’s  CD59 test done now! The CD59 test cost is affordable, and you will receive the test results within just 72 hours. There are no other prerequisites to the test either. All that the doctor will ask of you is your clinical history.

    faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Frequently asked questions

    No, there are no risks associated with the CD59 test. The test uses a blood sample; hence, you might experience slight scarring or bleeding at the point of contact with the needle.
    Yes, Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria is a progressive disease. In essence, it is a life-threatening, chronic, and a rare blood disorder that destroys Red Blood Cells (RBCs).
    No, PNH cannot be inherited, nor is it contagious. In fact, it is an acquired disease and is usually accompanied by Aplastic Anaemia. It affects both men and women equally and can be diagnosed at any age.
    Here are some food items you must eat to increase your RBC count significantly: Beans  Egg yolks  Red meat  Green leafy vegetables  Organ meat (kidney, liver, etc.) Legumes
    Yes, it is possible to develop PNH without Aplastic Anaemia. But, this is very rare, and AA is the only known risk factor for contracting PNH.
    First, let’s talk about the similarity between the two ailments, i.e., both of them lead to blood in the urine. The most notable difference here is that Hematuria entails RBCs in your urine, whereas Hemoglobinuria refers to Haemoglobin in your urine.

    Why should Apollo be your preferred healthcare partner?

    • 40 Years of legacy and credibility in the healthcare industry.
    • NABL certified multi-channel digital healthcare platform.
    • Affordable diagnostic solutions with timely and accurate test results.
    • Up to 60% discount on Doorstep Diagnostic Tests, Home Sample Collection.
    • An inventory of over 100+ laboratories, spread across the country, operating out of 120+ cities with 1200+ collection centers, serving over 1800+ pin codes.

    The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results