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HLA-DRB1/3/4/5 Typing

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  • HLA-DRB1/3/4/5 Typing

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About

blood sample
Sample

BLOOD

Gender
Gender

Both

users
Age group

7 years & above

HLAs, or the Human Leukocyte Antigens, comprise a significant part of your immune system. The genes located at chromosome 6 control the HLA proteins. These glycoproteins are detected on the exteriors of every cell in your body.

The HLA primarily acts as the recognition molecule that helps initiate and regulate immune responses.

They allow the immune system to distinguish between healthy and non-healthy cells by recognizing the proteins created by foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses.

Now, these antigens have different forms:

  • HLA-DRB1 gene: It offers instructions to create an essential protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It belongs to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. This class of genes initiate the formation of proteins on some of the immune system's cell's surface. They connect themselves to the protein fragments, called peptides. If the immune system believes they are foreign peptides, it will instantly trigger the attack response against the bacteria or virus. The HLA-DRB1 gene is found in every individual.
  • HLA-DRB3/4/5 gene: These three genes encode three proteins, namely the DRB3, DRB4 AND DRB5 beta chain. They belong to the HLA class II histocompatibility antigen. They are primarily anchored to the cell membrane and present the peptides which come from the extracellular proteins. These are known as antigen-presenting cells.

HLA typing is a genetic test often referred to as HLA matching. It determines certain factors which are related to your immune system. Mainly, its function is to determine whether a person is eligible and a good match to donate their cord blood, bone marrow or an organ to a patient needing a transplant. It helps determine the chances of conducting a safe tissue transplant (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or entire solid organ transplantation).

Every tissue recipient must have their HLA typing done, and any potential donor who wants to do their tissue. Individuals can also get their HLA typing registered in a bone marrow registry for possible stem cell transplantation. This test is also performed on terminally sick people or deceased organ donors.

The ones who have the closest match of HLA patterns become the suitable donors for the recipients. The closer the HLA match, the better chances that the recipient will not reject the transplanted organ.

The HLA typing test is also conducted after the transplant to check whether your body is creating antibodies against the transplanted tissue. It will serve as an indication of an unsuccessful transplant or organ rejection.

Apollo 24/7 offers an effortless and quick HLA-DRB1/3/4/5 typing test. Getting this test helps:

  • Gaining an insight into the particular sections of the immune system
  • Detect if the donor and recipient have a close HLA match
  • Determine the chances of successful organ transplantation
  • Check if your body is creating antibodies against transplanted tissue, which indicates that your transplant was not a success

Get tested for HLA-DRB1/3/4/5 Typing test after consulting your doctor.
 

faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the HLA system?

The HLA system is a group of genes that significantly affect your body's immune system. All these HLA-DRB proteins come together to make the major histocompatibility complex, also known as the MHC. These DRB1/3/4/5 attach themselves to every cell of your body except the red blood cells. The variations of the DRB protein help determine which cell in the body is healthy and which is a foreign, unhealthy invader.

Is HLA typing test also an Antibody Test?

Yes. HLA typing test also serves as an antibody test that checks for antibodies created by the body that targets specific HLA proteins. If these antibodies, produced by the immune system, attack the HLA proteins, it signifies that they will strike a particular colour string. It also indicates that the antibodies might attack the transplanted protein, thus rendering the transplant a failure. If your body has an antibody against the HLA protein found in the donor, it's best not to undergo the transplantation.

Does the HLA typing test also include Lymphocyte Crossmatching?

Yes, it does! Lymphocytes are one kind of immune cell. Lymphocyte Crossmatching helps determine if the recipient has a specific antibody against the proteins found on the donor's lymphocytes. If yes, then any possible transplant between them might be a failure.

Is blood typing any different from HLA typing?

Yes, HLA typing and blood typing are very different from each other. It’s because there are only eight basic blood types, but the HLA markers are a lot more in number, making every person's cell unique. If a person has to get a blood transfusion, they don't require an HLA match. But, if they need organ transplantation, their HLA must match the ones found in the recipient.

What are some of the transplants that require HLA typing?

There are at least two different kinds of transplants that can make use of the HLA typing test: Stem cell transplants Solid-organ transplants

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The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results