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    blood sample




    Age group

    Above 10 years

    Organ transplant is an extensive process which requires the replacement of a diseased organ with a healthy one. During the allograft or transplant procedure, the receiving body must have a strong immunity to withstand the internal organ accommodation.

    A majority of organ transplants fail because the receiver's body doesn't acknowledge the transferred tissue as its own. It happens because the immune system gets triggered after the transplantation, which releases antibodies causing the whole surgery to fail. Besides, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) also interferes with post-surgery drug treatment.

    Organ rejection does not happen immediately. Typically, there are two types of rejection after an allograft:

    • Acute rejection occurs when your body’s immune system considers the grafted organ as an invader and attacks it.
    • Chronic rejection happens after a year when your immune system becomes weak or develops antibodies against the transplanted organ.

    Transplant rejection causes a variety of symptoms in the body, slowly leading to permanent organ damage. These signs include:

    • Decreased organ functioning
    • Uneasiness and discomfort
    • Swollen and painful area around the organ
    • Chills, body aches, cough, nausea, breathing difficulty and fever

    To avoid such post-allograft symptoms and control the organ damage, the C4D IHC marker is commonly considered by surgeons. This biomarker acts as an indicator of the receiving body's tolerance for antibody-mediated rejection and graft survival. C4D marker is commonly known as a 'magic marker' due to its ability to detect any tissue injury in the transplanted organ inflicted by the antibodies.

    The C4D test is conducted using a tissue sample from the transplanted area to detect the sensitivity for any potential AMR dysfunction. Thereafter, the acquired sample is preserved in a paraffin block. The lab technician ensures that no sample corruption occurs either through heat exposure or foreign pollutant for accurate immunohistochemistry C4D test results.

    Based on the C4D IHC deposition in the sample, the sensitivity is specified. The higher the C4D fragment presence, the stronger is the intensity of antibody-mediated rejection.

    Side-effects of C4D marker specimen collection are rare, however, you can look out for:

    • Possibility of infection on the site of needle infection
    • Soft tissue swelling with a black and blue appearance
    • Slight discomfort at the puncture site
    • Contrast reactions such as rashes and hives

    Most of the side effects last for a few days only. However, if the issue persists, contact a certified medical practitioner.

    Apollo 24|7 offers immunohistochemistry individual marker C4D test by incorporating adequate safety and collection mechanisms. The major benefits of opting for the C4D fragment test include:

    • High success rate for post-surgery treatment
    • Reduced graft failure rates
    • Introduction of medication to tackle the hyperactive immune system
    • Understanding the likely autoimmune problems 
    • Long-term compatibility of the transplanted organ for the donor. 

    faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Frequently asked questions

    Organ rejection is usually of two types. Acute rejection happens immediately after the transplant surgery within the first few weeks or a month. Chronic rejection is a result of the development of C4D IHC deposition against the organ after at least a year of transplantation.
    Some common symptoms of kidney rejection include: Fever of 100°F or more Flu-like symptoms such as aches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting etc. Fluid retention and swelling Abnormal weight gain within 24 hours Decreased urination Tenderness around the kidney Increase in creatinine serum
    The antibody-mediated organ failure is a result of an activated immune system against the transplanted organ. This occurs when the body refuses to recognise the newly grafted tissues as a part of its own and treats them as a foreign invader.
    C4D deposition is an indicator of transplant rejection. The staining and deposition of the antigens on the paraffin block depict the organ damage inflicted due to the increased activity of the immune system. It helps in visualising the compatibility between donor antibodies and tissue injury at the transplant site.
    Negative C4D is a marker of no-organ injury after a transplant. It is a good sign against antibody-mediated organ rejection. However, the result can change after a few months and years due to any complicated diseases or weakened immune system.
    The Immunohistochemistry C4D test is a recognised examination for the presence of an antigen-based C4D fragment. Due to its linkage with the immune system, the test is also beneficial for detecting any autoimmune diseases or likely possibilities other than organ transplant rejection.

    Why should Apollo be your preferred healthcare partner?

    • 40 Years of legacy and credibility in the healthcare industry.
    • NABL certified multi-channel digital healthcare platform.
    • Affordable diagnostic solutions with timely and accurate test results.
    • Up to 60% discount on Doorstep Diagnostic Tests, Home Sample Collection.
    • An inventory of over 100+ laboratories, spread across the country, operating out of 120+ cities with 1200+ collection centers, serving over 1800+ pin codes.

    The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results