Anti Smith (Anti Sm) Antibody

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    blood sample




    Age group

    Above 10 years

    An Anti-Smith antibody test indicates the presence of chronic diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is an autoimmune disorder with many different symptoms, like rashes on the skin and overlapping syndromes. 

    The Anti-Smith antibody test is also helpful in detecting mixed connective tissue disease.

    Anti-Smith (Anti-Sm) Antibody Test - Overview

    Autoimmune disorders show several minor and significant symptoms. Therefore, it is essential to test the parameters accurately and start the treatment on time. Mostly, antibodies are responsible for immune disorders, and there are specific hallmarks of SLE and MCTD. 

    Anti-Sm is an important ribonucleoprotein that indicates the presence of lupus in individuals. The antibody is present in 20% of people who have lupus. However, it is also helpful in ruling rheumatic diseases in healthy individuals because the antibody is rarely present in them. 

    The techniques like hemagglutination, immunodiffusion and ELISA help find the presence of anti-Sm antibodies. These tests also indicate the concentration of antibodies in the blood that determines the adversity of the illness. 

    Another test named anti-RNP is performed along with anti-Sm to confirm the presence of lupus in patients. This is an antibody that is very prominent in patients having SLE. Approximately 25% of people with lupus have this antibody in the blood. However, anti-RNP does not indicate SLE alone. These are also present in individuals who have rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and polymyositis. 

    Hence, both these tests can quickly confirm or rule out the presence of autoimmune system disorder. Many results suggest that the level of anti-RNP keeps fluctuating, but it has nothing to do with symptoms of the condition. 

    Other examinations like anti-histone antibody tests and serum tests help give accurate results about the condition. A concrete diagnosis helps in starting accurate chemotherapy to manage the disorder. 

    Who Should Get Tested? 

    SLE can arise in young adults and reach its peak during 37-40 years. The symptoms can include fatigue, fever, skin lesions, joint stiffness, chest pain, and memory loss. 

    If a person has skin lesions that aggravate sun exposure, they might need a quick anti-Sm antibody test. These rashes also accompany a fever, fatigue, and constant ache in different body parts. 

    Medically reviewed by Dr. S K Sahoo, Senior Consultant, General Physican/Internal MedicineApollo Hospitals Sector 26, Noida.

    faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Frequently asked questions

    No. An anti-Sm test is a simple blood test that does not require any special preparations. The procedure takes hardly 5 minutes and requires only 3 ml of venous blood. Hence, you don’t have to fast or prepare anything extra for the course.
    ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a scientific assay for testing antibodies against system lupus erythematosus. Below are the steps followed during ELISA for an anti-Sm test:  Coating the 96-well plate with the capture antibody Wash off the plate to eliminate antibodies that are not adsorbed Block the unbound sites using bovine serum albumin Wash the blocking proteins as well Add the sample serum to the 96-well plate and incubate Wash the incubation fluid  Add detection antibody  Wash the detection antibody to avoid non-specific reading Incubate and read the plate under the spectrophotometer reader
    The technique, ELISA, used for the anti-Sm test is accurate. However, there are high chances of manual errors because the test requires frequent manual interventions. Hence, below are the factors that can affect the test results significantly: Viability of antibodies in the experiment Quality of blocking proteins and antibodies Maintenance of antibodies in the laboratory Contamination of chemicals by other proteins Mishandling of the data Improper pipetting and mixing of the chemicals
    The right time to go for an anti-Smith antibody test is after observing the symptoms of an autoimmune disorder. Usually, SLE symptoms are easy to notice and obvious in patients. Hence, one must not wait for the symptoms to become more aggressive before taking the test.
    Anti-Smith antibody test is suitable for SLE because nearly 30% of patients show an increase in antibody levels. Hence, the technique is particular and sensitive to diagnosing the problem. On the other hand, only 8% of MCTD patients show an elevation in antibody levels.

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    The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results