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Tetanus IgG

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  • TETANUS IGG

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About

blood sample
Sample

BLOOD

Gender
Gender

Both

users
Age group

7 years & above

Tetanus is a common yet serious infection caused by the toxin of the bacterium Clostridium tetani. In severe cases, tetanus spreads to nerves and causes uncontrollable spasms in the body.

The disease transmission occurs through the spread of bacterial spores found in common places like soil, rusted surfaces, and wood. Since the spores are highly viable, they can remain active for around 40 years.

The spores enter the body via open wounds, scratches, and deep cuts and penetrate the deeper layer of the skin. The bacterial spores germinate and divide in number to produce bacterial toxins. The toxin, known as tetanospasmin, further enters the bloodstream and causes slow poisoning in the body.

As a result, it affects the nerves and spines, which leads to loss of muscle relaxation. Due to the chronic nature and irreversible effects of tetanus, it is necessary to get vaccinated against the deadly infection within 48 hours of getting the injury.

However, if you fail to get the vaccine, it gets necessary for a person to undergo a tetanus IgG test to avoid the infection and its consequences.

The Tetanus antibody test looks for the presence of the antibody for the disease in your blood. After vaccination, the test for tetanus will show sufficient antibodies to fight against the disease. However, you might have to repeat the vaccination if the antibodies are too low.

High levels of antibodies in the blood indicate a normal response to the bacteria. Apollo 24|7 offers a tetanus IgG test that one can take after noticing these early symptoms:

  • Painful spasms in the muscle with immovability
  • Rigidity in the jaw muscles
  • Painful contraction in the neck muscles
  • Difficulty in swallowing the food
  • Rigid abdominal muscles with an unusual pain

These are the disease’s distinct symptoms after 7 to 21 days of infection. Being a chronic ailment, it is necessary to go for a tetanus IgG test and not ignore the symptoms. Other symptoms accompanied by the progression of the disease include:

  • Extreme high or low blood pressure
  • Consistently rapid heart rate
  • Fever
  • Extreme sweating

The tetanus IgG test looks for IgG antibody, which is abundantly present in the bloodstream as a response to bacterial invasion. People who should go for a tetanus antibody test are:

  • Those who haven’t taken the tetanus vaccine for more than 5 years.
  • Those experiencing symptoms of the disease in their body.
  • Anyone with a cut, wound, or scratch in their body is contaminated with spore-containing substances.
  • Those with a deep cut that is taking time to heal alongside showing typical symptoms of the infection.

Apart from identifying tetanus, the test also looks for other immune system problems, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), antibody deficiency, other immune system deficiencies, spleen dysfunction, and HIV infection.

A tetanus antibody test is also useful if you suffer from infections such as sinusitis, ear infection or digestive tract infection. 
 

Medically reviewed by Dr. Srikanth M, Haematologist, Apollo Hospitals Greams Road, Chennai

faqFrequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Is there any risk associated with the tetanus IgG test?

The test does not involve any significant risk, however, syringe-based sample collection can lead to basic problems like pain, bleeding, and bruising at the puncture site. Even though blood tests are easy, people with clotting disorders and blood disorders might face basic issues like a bump or excessive bleeding.

How can you prevent tetanus infection?

The two most basic ways to prevent tetanus infections are getting vaccinated and taking a tetanus antibody test. The former includes a combination vaccine which also protects you against diphtheria and pertussis. Since the combination vaccine includes attenuated organisms, it can cause symptoms like pain, redness, and bruising at the puncture site. Additionally, you might experience fever, fatigue, headache, stomach upset, or allergic reactions. However, the tetanus antibody test is a simple procedure that takes less than 5 minutes and does not require any preparation.

What can affect the results of the tetanus IgG test?

While the test is not very sensitive, results might be affected if you undergo immunotherapy involving gamma globulin or immunoglobulin treatment. Furthermore, people taking medications, undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, and consuming immunosuppressive drugs might be prone to false results.

Can surgical wounds lead to tetanus?

Yes. Infection in surgical wounds can lead to tetanus if not taken care of properly. Also, infection via surgical wounds is dangerous because it directly affects the body’s internal system.

Who should opt for a tetanus IgG test frequently?

People at risk of catching tetanus infection must frequently undergo the tetanus antibody test. These people include: People having a history of immunosuppressive drugs Individuals with diabetes An infected pregnant woman without vaccination for tetanus Adults indulging in illegal drugs with a history of shared needles

When is the right time to see a doctor?

It is essential to consult with a doctor after getting the tetanus IgG test results if it is positive. Even if the test results are negative, you can constantly seek updates about your vaccination status.

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The information mentioned above is meant for educational purposes only and should not be taken as a substitute to your Physician’s advice. It is highly recommended that the customer consults with a qualified healthcare professional to interpret test results